Faust 1 & 2: Originaler Text mit vielen Abbildungen (German Edition)
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There he acquired a knowledge of Arabic. Averroes' commentary in the French translation of Scot's Latin translation by Alain de Libera reads as follows:. Alain de Libera comments:. This is a no less "famous" Aristotelian distinction. See my Information and the second part of these Notes. Alain de Libera writes:. It is not imagination in the sense of informatio sensus as used already by Augustine or later on by Thomas Aquinas.
Notes on Greek, Latin, Arabic, Persian, and Hebrew Roots of the Concept of Information
And it is not, of course, modern representational thinking or "Vorstellung" in the German tradition. For Christian thinkers the distinction between creator and creature is basic. Thomas Aquinas makes it clear when he distinguishes between informatio , in the ontological sense of moulding matter, and creatio. See the second part of these Notes as well as David B. As Burrell remarks:. Such is the inherent telos of philosophical theology, as it strains, in the persons of its practitioners, to align itself with the goodnesses infused in things, the divineley ordained order of being.
Like Aristotle, Ibn Rushd views the study of the psyche as a part of physics, since it is related specifically to the generable and corruptible union of form and matter found in the physical world and passed from generation to generation through the seed and natural heat. Here Ibn Rushd, as M. Fakhry comments, divided the soul into five faculties: the nutritive, the sensitive, the imaginative, the appetitive and the rational. The primary psychological faculty of all plants and animals is the nutritive or vegetative faculty, passed on through sexual generation, as noted above.
The remaining four higher faculties are dependent on the nutritive faculty and are really perfections of this faculty, the product of a nature urging to move higher and higher. The nutritive faculty uses natural heat to convert nutrients from potentiality to actuality, which are essential for basic survival, growth and reproduction of the living organism. Meanwhile, the sensitive faculty is a passive power divided into two aspects, the proximate and the ultimate, in which the former is moved within the embryo by the heavenly body and the latter is moved by sensible objects.
Imagination is not opinion or reasoning, since it can conceive of unfalsified things and its objects are particular not universal, and may be finite because it is mutable moving from potentiality to actuality by the forms stored in the sensus communis. The imaginative faculty stimulates the appetitive faculty, which is understood as desire, since it imagines desirable objects. Fakhry adds that the imaginative and appetitive faculties are essentially related, in that it is the former that moves the latter to desire or reject any pleasurable or repulsive object.
It has two divisions, the practical and theoretical, given to humans alone for their ultimate moral and intellectual perfection. The rational faculty is the power that allows humanity to create, understand and be ethical. The practical is derived from the sensual and imaginative faculties, in that it is rooted in sensibles and related to moral virtues like friendship and love. The theoretical apprehends universal intelligibles and does not need an external agent for intellectualization, contrary to the doctrine of the Active Intellect in Neoplatonism. In its effort to achieve perfection, the rational faculty moves from potentiality to actuality.
In doing so it goes through a number of stages, know as the process of intellectation. They were, first and foremost, the material potential and the active agent intellects. The material intellect is analogous to prime matter, in that it is pure potentiality able to receive universal forms. As such, the human mind is a composite of the material intellect and the passive intellect, which is the third element of the intellect.
The passive intellect is identified with the imagination, which, as noted above, is the sense-connected finite and passive faculty that receives particular sensual forms. When the material intellect is actualized by information received, it is described as the speculative habitual intellect. As the speculative intellect moves towards perfection, having the active intellect as an object of thought, it becomes the acquired intellect.
The Life of August Wilhelm Schlegel
In that, it is aided by the active intellect, perceived in the way Aristotle had taught, to acquire intelligible thoughts. In the Tahafut , Ibn Rushd speaks of the soul as a faculty that comes to resemble the focus of its intention, and when its attention focuses more upon eternal and universal knowledge, it become more like the eternal and universal. As such, when the soul perfects itself, it becomes like our intellect. Leaman contends that Ibn Rushd understands the process of knowing as a progression of detachment from the material and individual to become a sort of generalized species, in which the soul may survive death.
This contradicts traditional religious views of the afterlife, which Ibn Rushd determines to be valuable in a political sense, in that it compels citizens to ethical behavior. Elsewhere, Ibn Rushd maintains that it is the Muslim doctrine of the afterlife that best motivates people to an ethical life. The Christian and Jewish doctrines, he notes, are too focused upon the spiritual elements of the afterlife, while the Muslim description of the physical pleasures are more enticing. Of course, Ibn Rushd does not ultimately reject the idea of a physical afterlife, but for him it is unlikely.
For instance, if the material intellect is one and eternal for all humans, how is it divided and individualized?
His immediate reply was that division can only occur within material forms, thus it is the human body that divides and individualizes the material intellect. This opposed the explanations found among the Neoplatonists, allowing a further argument for rejecting Neoplatonic emanation theories. Conclusion The events surrounding Ibn Rushd towards the end of his life, including his banishment, signaled a broader cultural shift in the Islamic world.
Interest in philosophy was primarily among the elite: scholars, royal patrons and civil servants. The twelfth and thirteenth centuries saw an intellectual revival in the Latin West, with the first great universities being established in Italy, France and England. Within the walls of the University of Paris, a group of philosophers came to identify themselves with the Aristotelian philosophy presented by Ibn Rushd, particularly certain elements of its relation to religion.
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Double truth, the idea that there are two kinds of truth, religious and philosophical, was not held by Ibn Rushd himself but was an innovation of the Averroists. Among Jewish thinkers, however, Ibn Rushd had a more positive impact. His thoughts on Aristotle and the relationship between philosophy and religion, particularly revelation, inspired a renewed interest in the interpretation of scripture and the Jewish religion.
Nevertheless, without the work of the Spanish-Muslim philosopher, much of what occurred in medieval philosophy would have not existed. He became an example of how religions are dynamic and evolving traditions, often shaped by epistemological influences from other traditions.
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If thinking is like perceiving, it must be either a process in which the soul is acted upon by what is capable of being thought, or a process different from but analogous to that. The thinking part of the soul must therefore be, while impassible, capable of receiving the form of an object; that is, must be potentially identical in character with its object without being the object. Mind must be related to what is thinkable, as sense is to what is sensible.
Therefore, since everything is a possible object of thought, mind in order, as Anaxagoras says, to dominate, that is, to know, must be pure from all admixture; for the co-presence of what is alien to its nature is a hindrance and a block: it follows that it too, like the sensitive part, can have no nature of its own, other than that of having a certain capacity. Thus that in the soul which is called mind by mind I mean that whereby the soul thinks and judges is, before it thinks, not actually any real thing.
For this reason it cannot reasonably be regarded as blended with the body: if so, it would acquire some quality, e. This is confirmed by our inability to speak when we are breathing either out or in-we can only do so by holding our breath; we make the movements with the breath so checked. It is clear also why fish are voiceless; they have no windpipe. And they have no windpipe because they do not breathe or take in air. Why they do not is a question belonging to another inquiry.
The term "algebra" is derived from the name of one of the basic operations with equations al-jabr , meaning "restoration", referring to adding a number to both sides of the equation to consolidate or cancel terms described in this book. A unique Arabic copy is kept at Oxford and was translated in by F. A Latin translation is kept in Cambridge. It provided an exhaustive account of solving polynomial equations up to the second degree, and discussed the fundamental methods of "reduction" and "balancing", referring to the transposition of terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation.
I asked Mahmood Khosrowjerdi See below the following question:. I write you as ask you if you see any connection between the thinking of Muhammad ibn Musa al Khwarizmi and our discussions dealing with tasawwur and tasdiq particularly with the concepts of al-jabr and al-muqabala referring to adding a number to both sides of the equation to consolidate or cancel terms and the methods of reduction and balancing between the terms of an equation al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wal-muqabala.
The Life of August Wilhelm Schlegel
My reply:. Al-Kwarizmi is interested in restoring an equation, similarly to Shannon who is interested in preserving the integrity of the message from a sender to a receiver. He admits that there is some insecurity its measure being called 'information' in opposition to the usual meaning of this term in everyday language: the higher rate of 'insecurity' corresponds to more 'information' in the trasmission particularly when the code used to transmit a message is not fixed and limited and you have to deal with fuziness and probabilty.
Norbert Wiener's cybernetics tied back the receiver to the sender. This is a dynamic restauration whose structure fits into what was called since the Middle Ages an algorithm. English adopted the French term, but it wasn't until the late 19th century that "algorithm" took on the meaning that it has in modern English.
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It was the first of God's creation and the intermediary through which all other things came into creation. These forms are really abstract concepts such as a species, quality or relation, which apply to all physical objects and beings.
For example, a red apple has the quality of "redness" derived from the appropriate universal. This potential is actualized by the First Intellect, which is perpetually thinking about all of the universals. He argues that the external agency of this intellect is necessary by saying that human beings cannot arrive at a universal concept merely through perception. In other words, an intellect cannot understand the species of a thing simply by examining one or more of its instances. According to him, this will only yield an inferior "sensible form", and not the universal form which we desire.