Es schmerzt, wenn man mit einem Mann verreist..: Teil 2 (Männer) (German Edition)
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Speak- ing of some of these hymns written on the walls of the chambers in the Sisters House at Ephrata, Hausmann says : " These Alexandrines are equal if not superior to any hymns written abroad in the eighteenth century. In from the pen of Sauer: "Eine Betrachtung des Lasters der Trun- kenheit " — showing the Pennsylvania German's early in- terest in temperance. Christopher Dock, a Mennonite, wrote hymns, some of which are still used, and in Sauer published his " Ein- faltige und grundlich abgefasste Schulordnung," the first work on pedagogy in this country in any language.
Full treatment of Dock is to be found in the writings of Sachse, Pennypacker and Brumbaugh. The English Grammar of 1 has been mentioned. From to was published the GeistUches Maga- zine, one of the first magazines of any kind to appear in the colonies. In "Ein Ross Artzney Biichlein," pages, was published. The greater part of the publications of the Sauer press naturally were religious or moral treatises — the number includes the three famous quarto Bibles, Sauer's greatest triumph, seven New Testament printings, several books of the Psalms and one Children's Bible.
ξυλοσομπες καλοριφερ βουλγαριας Τα φιλικά της Τριτωνίας
He published hymn books for the Dunker, Lutheran, Reformed, Men- nonite, Schwenkfelder and Moravian churches, for the Ephrata Community and several undenominational hymn books. Not all of these contained new or American prod- ucts but many of them did; nor should the work of the translators be passed over: George Whitfield's sermons were issued in German, also Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress," Pennsylvania-German Dialect Writings.
The above summary is intended merely to give some idea as to the variety of the productions of the German writers. Politics, botany, medicine, poetry, re- ligion, pedagogy, hymnology, school texts, astronomy, music, temperance — these are some of the subjects that engaged their attention. It is to be noted that the Sower firm has continued to be an influence in the book world to this day. Hausmann has counted twenty-seven hymn writers to , but the number is much larger, as more recent in- vestigators have shown, A. Seipt having added eight names from the Schwenkfelders, none of whom were known to Hausmann, all but one before Zinzen- dorf, the most prolific of the Moravian writers, composed over 2, hymns before his return to Europe, and of these Bishop Spangenberg wrote: "Nowhere else have been composed such beautiful and edifying hymns for shepherds, ploughers, threshers, reapers, spinners, knitters, weavers and others.
They would fill a whole farmer's hymn book. There were also other German presses in Pennsylvania, at one time more Ger- man presses than English. To investigate the number and the nature of the writ- ings of these people in the language of their Fatherland would be a fruitful subject of study, no less than a similar study of their literary productions in the English lan- guage.
The present work has nothing to do with either of these subjects. It is not a history of the literary activity of the Penn- vania Germans; it does not concern itself with anything that they have written in German or in English. What this Work is, and Why. The present writer was encouraged to undertake this study partly because of words like these from so eminent an authority as Rev.
John S. Stahr, Ph. The Pennsylvania-German dialect in this way effectively expresses the simplicity, honesty, inno- cence, pathos and beauty of the daily life of these people and the experiences which they have made as part of their history. There is certainly room, therefore, for the study of such literature as they have produced on this plane.
Here every word to a Pennsylvania German is a sound from home, every description a vivid picture, every expression strikes a chord in the soul that thrills every nerve, and the echoes of which haunt the spirit after the sound itself has died away.
To note a few representative works where these dialect writers and their writings have been briefly described : Oscar Kuhns. Karl Knortz. II, p. Julius Goebel. Zimmerman, Chicago, describes three writers, pp. Georg von Bosse. Albert Bernhardt Faust.
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In the case of the works above cited, it is invariably the same authors that are discussed. In all about half a dozen different writers are mentioned. Professor Faust, in the latest authoritative work that mentions the literature, is able to give less than two pages to it, but says it is " re- freshing and historically valuable. An Almanac in the dialect see Keller is men- tioned in the " Americana-Germanica " ; another one see Schuler has been found. The prose written in the form of weekly letters to a large number of newspapers has a value and an interest that has never received its due ap- preciation cf.
Grumbine, H. Moreover the present writer has for many years been a collector and believes that he has in his possession, or has seen, all the books that have ever been written in the dialect. He has also collected poems of the kind men- tioned by Kuhns, and now has a very large number in his collection some of these have never appeared in print ; and, therefore, believes that he can give, or has given, a much fuller and more comprehensive view than has ever appeared heretofore. Pennsylvania-German Dialect Writings. It Is of the same man and the same book that Dr.
Faust when he says : " The two most prominent poets, for such a title may be bestowed upon them," and when he says: "This poetical literature of the Pennsylvania Ger- mans Is one of the few original notes in American lyrical poetry. After discussing the ancestry of the dialect, he proceeds to consider the books that have been written in the dialect, with a view to giving the prospective author ad- 24 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
The particular paragraph that I have at present in mind I give in the original dialect: " Nau, wann du dra' gehst for sel Buch schrelwe los des verhenkert Englisch Kauder- welsch haus wo gar net in unser Sproch g'hort. Ich arge mich allemol schwarz un bio wann so dumm stoff gedruckt un in die Welt g'schlckt werd wo Pennsylvanlsch deitsch sei soil, awer lauter geloga is. Un wann del Buch mol fertig is un's kummt mir unner die Finger un 's Is so 'n elendiger Wisch wie kerzUch eener in Fildelfi raus kunime is, dann ufgebasst — for dann verhechel ich dich dass du aussehnst wie verhudelt Schwingwerk, un die Leut dich for'n Spuks awgucke.
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The same work that Is called " 'N elendiger WIsch" is referred to by Karl Knortz as "ein wertvolles Werkchen," and then he tells us that here we may expect the truth, for the author was himself one of these people, etc. The present writer has tried to ferret out the reasons for these differences of opinion, and errors of fact have been corrected. Adverse criticism has too frequently come from persons who do not understand the dialect or who have measured dialect literature by the canons of higher forms of literature; favorable criticism too fre- quently from over-zealous defenders of the dialect.
Ill: What the Pennsylvania-German Dialect is. The settlers of Pennsylvania that came to be known as Pennsylvania Germans came chiefly from the valley of the Upper Rhine, the Palatinate and Switzerland. The books they brought with them and those that in the colony were printed were High German; the language of their churches and their schools was High German; but in the home, in their simple dealings with each other they used the dialects of their native districts, the Lower Franconian and Ale- mannic dialects, and out of these two basic forms there de- veloped in Pennsylvania an almost homogeneous dialect, in which, however, the former predominated.
As time went on and occasion required, a large number of Eng- lish words were pressed into service, though they were always subjected to dialect inflections and constructions. Objects for which there was no name in their speech re- ceived the English name.
The people no longer had any connection with the Fatherland except in matters of re- ligion, and gradually acquired the English language or such parts of it as their needs required. With the acqui- sition of English it came about that the people never hesi- tated to draw upon an English word when speaking the dialect and memory failed or a suitable dialect or High 26 The Pennsylvania-German Society. Guten Tag, Frau Volkers!
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It is true beyond doubt. Ja klar. It is like what we imagine knowledge to be: dark, salt, clear, moving, utterly free, drawn from the cold hard mouth of the world, derived from the rocky breasts forever, flowing and drawn, and since our knowledge is historical, flowing, and flown. Jahrhundert vorzugreifen. German word was missing, or an English word served the purpose better. The entire terminology of the law, at least so far as they needed it, was adopted into the dialect.
This became so common that Dr. Henry Muh- lenberg and B. Schipper in their German-English Eng- lish-German Dictionary, Lancaster, , say that it often happens that without special reflection or consulting a dic- tionary the people are no longer certain whether they are using an English or a German word.
Arbitrehschen arbitration , Bahl bail , Dschodsch judge , Kautoback Kau — German, chewing tobacco , Minsspie mince pie , Serdschant sergeant , Schmidtschop Schmidt — German, blacksmith shop , Eln- fensen ein — German, to fence in , Skalp scalp. Vendue a public sale , Quilten to quilt.
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At its best — or worst — the Pennsylvania-German dialect Includes all of the original dialect vocabulary, a large num- ber of words from High German, especially religious and biblical, and all of the English language known or needed. Not long since a well-educated young lady in New York inquired of one of her friends, a lawyer, whether he him- self could speak that peculiar dialect of his ancestors.
When he assured her that he still had that accomplish- ment, she requested that he give evidence of his ability along those lines. When he very glibly proceeded to do so, he found himself promptly cut short with the suggestion that he was trying to hoodwink her.
She knew exactly what she wanted, and began to illustrate by examples like the following: "Did you hear Lizzie, Abe Snyder's wife, she died fur him last night, and her only sick a week yet? Ach, reely did she though? Yes, and her so well always and him so sickly that way all the time, don't it now beat all?
Why there is a Dialect Literature. The rustic at home pokes fun at the fine phrases of the urbanite, while the city man ridicules the language of the peasant. The city man, however, seems to have more of authority and the countryman is usually on the defensive.
This relation subsists also between the language and the dialect, as soon as a more or less standardized language is evolved out of kindred dialects. In the Middle Ages, when the aristocratic court poetry gave way to writers representing the Middle Class spirit, Hugo von Trimmer in his poem " Der Renner" thus apologizes for his dialect: Ein ieglich mensche sprlchet gem Die sprache, bi der er ist erzogen ; Sint miniu wort ein teil gebogen Gen Franken, nieman daz si zorn, Wan ich von Franken bin geborn.
It matters not what dialect or what period we examine, the results are the same; thus in a little volume, " Marsch und Geest: Gedichte in niederdeutscher Mundart" von Franz Poppe, Oldenburg, , we may read on the first page: Se saen, wi Noorddiitschen Verstunnen kin Gesang An'n Rhiin un an de Donau, Dar harr de Sprak blot Klang. Dat het us lang verdraten Dat se us so veracht't As harr'n se't Recht torn Singen Far sick alleenig pacht't. Even Goethe had to defend himself against the charge that his speech was colored by South German dialect.
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